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Translators: brahmali

The Compendium

13. Codanākaṇḍa

The chapter on accusing

1. Anuvijjakaanuyoga
1. Investigation

Anuvijjakena codako pucchitabbo—
The investigator should ask the accuser:

“yaṁ kho tvaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ codesi, kimhi naṁ codesi, sīlavipattiyā vā codesi, ācāravipattiyā vā codesi, diṭṭhivipattiyā vā codesī”ti?
“Do you accuse this monk for failure in morality, failure in conduct, failure in view, or failure in livelihood?”

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“sīlavipattiyā vā codemi, ācāravipattiyā vā codemi, diṭṭhivipattiyā vā codemī”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
“I am accusing him of failure in morality,” or “I am accusing him of failure in conduct,” or “I am accusing him of failure in view,” he should be asked,

“jānāsi panāyasmā sīlavipattiṁ, jānāsi ācāravipattiṁ, jānāsi diṭṭhivipattin”ti?
“‘Do you know what failure in morality is?” “Do you know what failure in conduct is?” “Do you know what failure in view is?”

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“jānāmi kho ahaṁ, āvuso, sīlavipattiṁ, jānāmi ācāravipattiṁ, jānāmi diṭṭhivipattin”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
“I do,” he should be asked what they are.

“katamā panāvuso, sīlavipatti?

Katamā ācāravipatti?

Katamā diṭṭhivipattī”ti?

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“cattāri ca pārājikāni, terasa ca saṅghādisesā, ayaṁ sīlavipatti.
“The four offenses entailing expulsion and the thirteen entailing suspension are failure in morality,”

Thullaccayaṁ, pācittiyaṁ, pāṭidesanīyaṁ, dukkaṭaṁ, dubbhāsitaṁ, ayaṁ ācāravipatti.
“The serious offenses, the offenses entailing confession, the offenses entailing acknowledgment, the offenses of wrong conduct, and the offenses of wrong speech are failure in conduct,”

Micchādiṭṭhi, antaggāhikā diṭṭhi, ayaṁ diṭṭhivipattī”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
“Wrong views and extreme views are failure in view,” he should be asked,

“yaṁ kho tvaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ codesi, diṭṭhena vā codesi sutena vā codesi parisaṅkāya vā codesī”ti?
“Are you accusing this monk because of what you have seen, because of what you have heard, or because of suspicion?”

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“diṭṭhena vā codemi sutena vā codemi parisaṅkāya vā codemī”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
“I’m accusing him because of what I have seen,” “I’m accusing him because of what I have heard,” “I’m accusing him because of suspicion,” he should be asked,

“yaṁ kho tvaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ diṭṭhena codesi, kiṁ te diṭṭhaṁ kinti te diṭṭhaṁ, kadā te diṭṭhaṁ, kattha te diṭṭhaṁ pārājikaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho, saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho, thullaccayaṁ …
“Since you’re accusing this monk because of what you have seen, what have you seen? How did you see it? When did you see it? Where did you see it? Did you see him commit an offense entailing expulsion? Did you see him commit an offense entailing suspension? Did you see him commit a serious offense?

pācittiyaṁ …
… an offense entailing confession?

pāṭidesanīyaṁ …
… an offense entailing acknowledgment?

dukkaṭaṁ …
… an offense of wrong conduct?

dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho, kattha ca tvaṁ ahosi, kattha cāyaṁ bhikkhu ahosi, kiñca tvaṁ karosi, kiṁ cāyaṁ bhikkhu karotī”ti?
… an offense of wrong speech? Where were you? Where was this monk? What were you doing? What was this monk doing?”

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ diṭṭhena codemi, api ca sutena codemī”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
“I didn’t accuse this monk because of what I have seen, but because of what I have heard,” he should be asked,

“yaṁ kho tvaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ sutena codesi, kiṁ te sutaṁ, kinti te sutaṁ, kadā te sutaṁ, kattha te sutaṁ, pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ, saṅghādisesaṁ …
“Since you’re accusing this monk because of what you have heard, what have you heard? How did you hear it? When did you hear it? Where did you hear it? Did you hear that he has committed an offense entailing expulsion? Did you hear that he has committed an offense entailing suspension?

thullaccayaṁ …
… a serious offense?

pācittiyaṁ …
… an offense entailing confession?

pāṭidesanīyaṁ …
… an offense entailing acknowledgment?

dukkaṭaṁ …
… an offense of wrong conduct?

dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ, bhikkhussa sutaṁ, bhikkhuniyā sutaṁ, sikkhamānāya sutaṁ, sāmaṇerassa sutaṁ, sāmaṇeriyā sutaṁ, upāsakassa sutaṁ, upāsikāya sutaṁ, rājūnaṁ sutaṁ, rājamahāmattānaṁ sutaṁ, titthiyānaṁ sutaṁ, titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutan”ti?
Did you hear that he has committed an offense of wrong speech? Did you hear it from a monk? Did you hear it from a nun? Did you hear it from a trainee nun? Did you hear it from a novice monk? Did you hear it from a novice nun? Did you hear it from a male lay follower? Did you hear it from a female lay follower? Did you hear it from kings? Did you hear it from a king’s officials? Did you hear it from the monastics of another religion? Did you hear it from the lay followers of another religion?”

So ce evaṁ vadeyya—
If he says,

“na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ sutena codemi, api ca parisaṅkāya codemī”ti, so evamassa vacanīyo—
If he says, “I didn’t accuse this monk because of what I have heard, but because of suspicion,” he should be asked,

“yaṁ kho tvaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ bhikkhuṁ parisaṅkāya codesi, kiṁ parisaṅkasi, kinti parisaṅkasi, kadā parisaṅkasi, kattha parisaṅkasi, pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi, saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi, thullaccayaṁ …
“Since you’re accusing this monk because of suspicion, what do you suspect? How do you suspect it? When did you suspect it? Where did you suspect it? Do you suspect that he has committed an offense entailing expulsion? Do you suspect that he has committed an offense entailing suspension? Do you suspect that he has committed a serious offense?

pācittiyaṁ …
… an offense entailing confession?

pāṭidesanīyaṁ …
… an offense entailing acknowledgment?

dukkaṭaṁ …
… an offense of wrong conduct?

dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi, bhikkhussa sutvā parisaṅkasi, bhikkhuniyā sutvā parisaṅkasi, sikkhamānāya sutvā parisaṅkasi, sāmaṇerassa sutvā parisaṅkasi, sāmaṇeriyā sutvā parisaṅkasi, upāsakassa sutvā parisaṅkasi, upāsikāya sutvā parisaṅkasi, rājūnaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi, rājamahāmattānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi, titthiyānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi, titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasī”ti?
Do you suspect that he has committed an offense of wrong speech? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a monk? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a nun? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a trainee nun? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a novice monk? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a novice nun? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a male lay follower? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a female lay follower? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from kings? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from a king’s officials? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from the monastics of another religion? Do you suspect it after hearing about it from the lay followers of another religion?”

Diṭṭhaṁ diṭṭhena sameti,
If what he saw agrees with what he says he saw,

diṭṭhena saṁsandate diṭṭhaṁ;
If they correspond with each other,

Diṭṭhaṁ paṭicca na upeti,
But what was seen is not adequate to prove the accusation,

asuddhaparisaṅkito;
Then the one suspecting impurity

So puggalo paṭiññāya,
Should admit it,

kātabbo tenuposatho.
And they should then do the observance-day ceremony with him.

Sutaṁ sutena sameti,
If what he heard agrees with what he says he heard,

sutena saṁsandate sutaṁ;
If they correspond with each other,

Sutaṁ paṭicca na upeti,
But what was heard is not adequate to prove the accusation,

asuddhaparisaṅkito;
Then the one suspecting impurity

So puggalo paṭiññāya,
Should admit it,

kātabbo tenuposatho.
And they should then do the observance-day ceremony with him.

Mutaṁ mutena sameti,
If what he sensed agrees with what he says he sensed,

mutena saṁsandate mutaṁ;
If they correspond with each other,

Mutaṁ paṭicca na upeti,
But what was sensed is not adequate to prove the accusation,

asuddhaparisaṅkito;
Then the one suspecting impurity

So puggalo paṭiññāya,
Should admit it,

kātabbo tenuposatho.
And they should then do the observance-day ceremony with him.

Codanāya ko ādi, kiṁ majjhe, kiṁ pariyosānaṁ?
What is the beginning, the middle, and the end of an accusation?

Codanāya okāsakammaṁ ādi, kiriyā majjhe, samatho pariyosānaṁ.
Getting permission is the beginning of an accusation, doing it is the middle, settling it is the end.

Codanāya kati mūlāni, kati vatthūni, kati bhūmiyo, katihākārehi codeti?
How many roots does accusing have, how many bases, and how many grounds? And in how many ways does one accuse?

Codanāya dve mūlāni, tīṇi vatthūni, pañca bhūmiyo, dvīhākārehi codeti.
It has two roots, three bases, and five grounds. And one accuses in two ways.

Codanāya katamāni dve mūlāni?
What are the two roots?

Samūlikā vā amūlikā vā—
With a root and without a root.

codanāya imāni dve mūlāni.

Codanāya katamāni tīṇi vatthūni?
What are the three bases?

Diṭṭhena sutena parisaṅkāya—
The seen, the heard, and the suspected.

codanāya imāni tīṇi vatthūni.

Codanāya katamā pañca bhūmiyo?
What are the five grounds?

Kālena vakkhāmi no akālena, bhūtena vakkhāmi no abhūtena, saṇhena vakkhāmi no pharusena, atthasaṁhitena vakkhāmi no anatthasaṁhitena, mettācitto vakkhāmi no dosantaroti—
“I’ll speak at an appropriate time, not at an inappropriate one; I’ll speak the truth, not falsehood; I’ll speak gently, not harshly; I’ll speak what’s beneficial, not what’s unbeneficial; I’ll speak with a mind of good will, not with ill will.”

codanāya imā pañca bhūmiyo.

Katamehi dvīhākārehi codeti?
What are the two ways of accusing?

Kāyena vā codeti vācāya vā codeti—
One accuses by body or by speech.

imehi dvīhākārehi codeti.

2. Codakādipaṭipatti
2. The actions of an accuser, etc.

Codakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ?
How should the accuser act?

Cuditakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ?
How should the accused act?

Saṅghena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ?
How should the Sangha act?

Anuvijjakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ?
How should the investigator act?

Codakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbanti?
“How should the accuser act?”

Codakena pañcasu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya paro codetabbo.
The accuser should set up five qualities before accusing another:

Kālena vakkhāmi no akālena, bhūtena vakkhāmi no abhūtena, saṇhena vakkhāmi no pharusena, atthasaṁhitena vakkhāmi no anatthasaṁhitena, mettācitto vakkhāmi no dosantaroti—
“I’ll speak at an appropriate time, not at an inappropriate one; I’ll speak the truth, not falsehood; I’ll speak gently, not harshly; I’ll speak what’s beneficial, not what’s unbeneficial; I’ll speak with a mind of good will, not with ill will.”

codakena evaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ.

Cuditakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbanti?
“How should the accused act?”

Cuditakena dvīsu dhammesu paṭipajjitabbaṁ.
The accused should set up two qualities:

Sacce ca akuppe ca—
truth and composure.

cuditakena evaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ.

Saṅghena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbanti?
“How should the Sangha act?”

Saṅghena otiṇṇānotiṇṇaṁ jānitabbaṁ.
The Sangha should know what has been brought before it and what is not.

Saṅghena evaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ.

Anuvijjakena kathaṁ paṭipajjitabbanti?
“How should the investigator act?”

Anuvijjakena yena dhammena yena vinayena yena satthusāsanena taṁ adhikaraṇaṁ vūpasammati tathā taṁ adhikaraṇaṁ vūpasametabbaṁ.
The investigator resolves that legal issue in accordance with the Teaching, the Monastic Law, and the Teacher’s instruction.

Anuvijjakena evaṁ paṭipajjitabbaṁ.

Uposatho kimatthāya,
What is the purpose of the observance-day ceremony?

Pavāraṇā kissa kāraṇā;
Why is there an invitation ceremony?

Parivāso kimatthāya,
What is the purpose of probation?

Mūlāyapaṭikassanā kissa kāraṇā;
Why is there a sending back to the beginning?

Mānattaṁ kimatthāya,
What is the purpose of the trial period?

Abbhānaṁ kissa kāraṇā.
Why is there rehabilitation?

Uposatho sāmaggatthāya,
The purpose of the observance-day ceremony is unity.

Visuddhatthāya pavāraṇā;
The purpose of the invitation ceremony is purity.

Parivāso mānattatthāya,
The purpose of probation is purity is the trial period.

Mūlāyapaṭikassanā niggahatthāya;
The purpose of sending back to the beginning is restraint.

Mānattaṁ abbhānatthāya,
The purpose of the trial period is rehabilitation.

Visuddhatthāya abbhānaṁ.
The purpose of rehabilitation is purity.

Chandā dosā bhayā mohā,
If, because of desire, ill will, fear or confusion,

there ca paribhāsati;
A senior monk reviles someone,

Kāyassa bhedā duppañño,
Then, when the body breaks up, that foolish person,

khato upahatindriyo;
Damaged, with impaired faculties,

Nirayaṁ gacchati dummedho,
Being stupid, goes to hell,

na ca sikkhāya gāravo.
Not respecting the training.

Na ca āmisaṁ nissāya,
But not depending worldly gain,

na ca nissāya puggalaṁ;
Not depending on individual people,

Ubho ete vivajjetvā,
Giving up both of these,

yathādhammo tathā kare.
One should act according to the Teaching.

3. Codakassaattajhāpana
3. The accuser burning himself

Kodhano upanāhī ca,
“Angry and resentful,

Caṇḍo ca paribhāsako;
Fierce and reviling,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Upakaṇṇakaṁ jappati jimhaṁ pekkhati,
Whispering in the ear, looking for flaws,

Vītiharati kummaggaṁ paṭisevati;
Reciprocating, following the wrong path,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Akālena codeti abhūtena,
Accusing at the wrong time, untruthfully,

Pharusena anatthasaṁhitena;
Harshly, without benefit,

Dosantaro codeti no mettācitto,
With a mind of ill will, not a mind of good will,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti;
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Dhammādhammaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing the Teaching or what is contrary to the Teaching,

Dhammādhammassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Vinayāvinayaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing the Monastic Law or what is contrary to the Monastic Law,

Vinayāvinayassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Bhāsitābhāsitaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing what was spoken or what was not spoken,

Bhāsitābhāsitassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Āciṇṇānāciṇṇaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing what was practiced or what was not practiced,

Āciṇṇānāciṇṇassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Paññattāpaññattaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing what was laid down or what was not laid down,

Paññattāpaññattassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Āpattānāpattiṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing the offenses or the non-offenses,

Āpattānāpattiyā akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Lahukagarukaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing light offenses or heavy offenses,

Lahukagarukassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Sāvasesānavasesaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing curable offenses or incurable offenses,

Sāvasesānavasesassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Duṭṭhullāduṭṭhullaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing grave offenses or minor offenses,

Duṭṭhullāduṭṭhullassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Pubbāparaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing what comes before or what comes afterwards,

Pubbāparassa akovido;
Ignorant about both,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānaṁ.
Such an accuser burns himself.

Anusandhivacanapathaṁ na jānāti,
Not knowing the sequence of statements,

Anusandhivacanapathassa akovido;
Ignorant about it,

Anāpattiyā āpattīti ropeti,
He charges someone innocent with an offense—

Tādiso codako jhāpeti attānanti.
Such an accuser burns himself.”

Codanākaṇḍaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.
The chapter on accusing is finished.

Tassuddānaṁ
This is the summary:

Codanā anuvijjā ca,
“Accusing, and investigating,

ādi mūlenuposatho;
Beginning, at root, observance day,

Gati codanakaṇḍamhi,
Destiny. In the chapter on accusing,

sāsanaṁ patiṭṭhāpayanti.
The instruction is placed.”