sutta » mn » Majjhima Nikāya 140

Translators: sujato

Middle Discourses 140

Dhātuvibhaṅgasutta

The Analysis of the Elements

Evaṁ me sutaṁ—
So I have heard.

ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā magadhesu cārikaṁ caramāno yena rājagahaṁ tadavasari;
At one time the Buddha was wandering in the Magadhan lands when he arrived at Rājagaha.

yena bhaggavo kumbhakāro tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhaggavaṁ kumbhakāraṁ etadavoca:
He went to see Bhaggava the potter, and said,

“sace te, bhaggava, agaru viharemu āvesane ekarattan”ti.
“Bhaggava, if it is no trouble, I’d like to spend a single night in your workshop.”

“Na kho me, bhante, garu.
“It’s no trouble, sir.

Atthi cettha pabbajito paṭhamaṁ vāsūpagato.
But there’s a renunciate already staying there.

Sace so anujānāti, viharatha, bhante, yathāsukhan”ti.
If he allows it, sir, you may stay as long as you like.”

Tena kho pana samayena pukkusāti nāma kulaputto bhagavantaṁ uddissa saddhāya agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito.
Now at that time a gentleman named Pukkusāti had gone forth from the lay life to homelessness out of faith in the Buddha.

So tasmiṁ kumbhakārāvesane paṭhamaṁ vāsūpagato hoti.
And it was he who had first taken up residence in the workshop.

Atha kho bhagavā yenāyasmā pukkusāti tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ pukkusātiṁ etadavoca:
Then the Buddha approached Venerable Pukkusāti and said,

“sace te, bhikkhu, agaru viharemu āvesane ekarattan”ti.
“Mendicant, if it is no trouble, I’d like to spend a single night in the workshop.”

“Urundaṁ, āvuso, kumbhakārāvesanaṁ.
“The potter’s workshop is spacious, reverend.

Viharatāyasmā yathāsukhan”ti.
Please stay as long as you like.”

Atha kho bhagavā kumbhakārāvesanaṁ pavisitvā ekamantaṁ tiṇasanthārakaṁ paññāpetvā nisīdi pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā.
Then the Buddha entered the workshop and spread out a grass mat to one side. He sat down cross-legged, set his body straight, and established mindfulness in front of him.

Atha kho bhagavā bahudeva rattiṁ nisajjāya vītināmesi.
He spent much of the night sitting in meditation,

Āyasmāpi kho pukkusāti bahudeva rattiṁ nisajjāya vītināmesi.
and so did Pukkusāti.

Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi:
Then it occurred to the Buddha,

“pāsādikaṁ kho ayaṁ kulaputto iriyati.
“This gentleman’s conduct is impressive.

Yannūnāhaṁ puccheyyan”ti.
Why don’t I question him?”

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ pukkusātiṁ etadavoca:
So the Buddha said to Pukkusāti,

“kaṁsi tvaṁ, bhikkhu, uddissa pabbajito? Ko vā te satthā? Kassa vā tvaṁ dhammaṁ rocesī”ti?
“In whose name have you gone forth, reverend? Who is your Teacher? Whose teaching do you believe in?”

“Atthāvuso, samaṇo gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulā pabbajito.
“Reverend, there is the ascetic Gotama—a Sakyan, gone forth from a Sakyan family.

Taṁ kho pana bhagavantaṁ gotamaṁ evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato:
He has this good reputation:

‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā’ti.
‘That Blessed One is perfected, a fully awakened Buddha, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, holy, knower of the world, supreme guide for those who wish to train, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed.’

Tāhaṁ bhagavantaṁ uddissa pabbajito.
I’ve gone forth in his name.

So ca me bhagavā satthā.
That Blessed One is my Teacher,

Tassa cāhaṁ bhagavato dhammaṁ rocemī”ti.
and I believe in his teaching.”

“Kahaṁ pana, bhikkhu, etarahi so bhagavā viharati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho”ti.
“But mendicant, where is the Blessed One at present, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha?”

“Atthāvuso, uttaresu janapadesu sāvatthi nāma nagaraṁ.
“In the northern lands there is a city called Sāvatthī.

Tattha so bhagavā etarahi viharati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho”ti.
There the Blessed One is now staying, the perfected one, the fully awakened Buddha.”

“Diṭṭhapubbo pana te, bhikkhu, so bhagavā;
“But have you ever seen that Buddha?

disvā ca pana jāneyyāsī”ti?
Would you recognize him if you saw him?”

“Na kho me, āvuso, diṭṭhapubbo so bhagavā;
“No, I’ve never seen him,

disvā cāhaṁ na jāneyyan”ti.
and I wouldn’t recognize him if I did.”

Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi:
Then it occurred to the Buddha,

“mamañca khvāyaṁ kulaputto uddissa pabbajito.
“This gentleman has gone forth in my name.

Yannūnassāhaṁ dhammaṁ deseyyan”ti.
Why don’t I teach him the Dhamma?”

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ pukkusātiṁ āmantesi:
So the Buddha said to Pukkusāti,

“dhammaṁ te, bhikkhu, desessāmi.
“Mendicant, I shall teach you the Dhamma.

Taṁ suṇāhi, sādhukaṁ manasi karohi; bhāsissāmī”ti.
Listen and apply your mind well, I will speak.”

“Evamāvuso”ti kho āyasmā pukkusāti bhagavato paccassosi.
“Yes, reverend,” replied Pukkusāti.

Bhagavā etadavoca:
The Buddha said this:

“‘Cha dhāturo ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso cha phassāyatano aṭṭhārasa manopavicāro caturādhiṭṭhāno;
“‘This person has six elements, six fields of contact, eighteen mental preoccupations, and four foundations.

yattha ṭhitaṁ maññassavā nappavattanti, maññassave kho pana nappavattamāne muni santoti vuccati.
Wherever they stand, the streams of conceiving do not flow. And when the streams of conceiving do not flow, they are called a sage at peace.

Paññaṁ nappamajjeyya, saccamanurakkheyya, cāgamanubrūheyya, santimeva so sikkheyyā’ti—
Do not neglect wisdom; preserve truth; foster generosity; and train only for peace.’

ayamuddeso dhātuvibhaṅgassa.
This is the recitation passage for the analysis of the elements.

‘Cha dhāturo ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has six elements.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

Chayimā, bhikkhu, dhātuyo—
There are these six elements:

pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu, ākāsadhātu, viññāṇadhātu.
the elements of earth, water, fire, air, space, and consciousness.

‘Cha dhāturo ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has six elements.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

‘Cha phassāyatano ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has six fields of contact.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

Cakkhusamphassāyatanaṁ, sotasamphassāyatanaṁ, ghānasamphassāyatanaṁ, jivhāsamphassāyatanaṁ, kāyasamphassāyatanaṁ, manosamphassāyatanaṁ.
The fields of contact of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind.

‘Cha phassāyatano ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has six fields of contact.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

‘Aṭṭhārasa manopavicāro ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has eighteen mental preoccupations.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati;
Seeing a sight with the eye, one is preoccupied with a sight that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity.

sotena saddaṁ sutvā …pe…
Hearing a sound with the ear …

ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā …
Smelling an odor with the nose …

jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā …
Tasting a flavor with the tongue …

kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā …
Feeling a touch with the body …

manasā dhammaṁ viññāya somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati—
Becoming conscious of a thought with the mind, one is preoccupied with a thought that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity.

iti cha somanassupavicārā, cha domanassupavicārā, cha upekkhupavicārā.
So there are six preoccupations with happiness, six preoccupations with sadness, and six preoccupations with equanimity.

‘Aṭṭhārasa manopavicāro ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has eighteen mental preoccupations.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

‘Caturādhiṭṭhāno ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has four foundations.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

Paññādhiṭṭhāno, saccādhiṭṭhāno, cāgādhiṭṭhāno, upasamādhiṭṭhāno.
The foundations of wisdom, truth, generosity, and peace.

‘Caturādhiṭṭhāno ayaṁ, bhikkhu, puriso’ti—
‘This person has four foundations.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

‘Paññaṁ nappamajjeyya, saccamanurakkheyya, cāgamanubrūheyya, santimeva so sikkheyyā’ti—
‘Do not neglect wisdom; preserve truth; foster generosity; and train only for peace.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

Kathañca, bhikkhu, paññaṁ nappamajjati?
And how does one not neglect wisdom?

Chayimā, bhikkhu, dhātuyo—
There are these six elements:

pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu, ākāsadhātu, viññāṇadhātu.
the elements of earth, water, fire, air, space, and consciousness.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, pathavīdhātu?
And what is the earth element?

Pathavīdhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
The earth element may be interior or exterior.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu?
And what is the interior earth element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ kakkhaḷaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathidaṁ—
Anything hard, solid, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual. This includes

kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṁsaṁ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṁ vakkaṁ hadayaṁ yakanaṁ kilomakaṁ pihakaṁ papphāsaṁ antaṁ antaguṇaṁ udariyaṁ karīsaṁ, yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ kakkhaḷaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ—
head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, undigested food, feces, or anything else hard, solid, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual.

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu.
This is called the interior earth element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu yā ca bāhirā pathavīdhātu pathavīdhāturevesā.
The interior earth element and the exterior earth element are just the earth element.

‘Taṁ netaṁ mama nesohamasmi na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā pathavīdhātuyā nibbindati, pathavīdhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the earth element, detaching the mind from the earth element.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, āpodhātu?
And what is the water element?

Āpodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
The water element may be interior or exterior.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā āpodhātu?
And what is the interior water element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ seyyathidaṁ—
Anything that’s water, watery, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual. This includes

pittaṁ semhaṁ pubbo lohitaṁ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṁ, yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ—
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, snot, synovial fluid, urine, or anything else that’s water, watery, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual.

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā āpodhātu.
This is called the interior water element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā āpodhātu yā ca bāhirā āpodhātu āpodhāturevesā.
The interior water element and the exterior water element are just the water element.

‘Taṁ netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā āpodhātuyā nibbindati, āpodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the water element, detaching the mind from the water element.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, tejodhātu?
And what is the fire element?

Tejodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
The fire element may be interior or exterior.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā tejodhātu?
And what is the interior fire element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathidaṁ—
Anything that’s fire, fiery, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual. This includes

yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati, yena ca pariḍayhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ sammā pariṇāmaṁ gacchati, yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ—
that which warms, that which ages, that which heats you up when feverish, that which properly digests food and drink, or anything else that’s fire, fiery, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual.

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā tejodhātu.
This is called the interior fire element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā tejodhātu yā ca bāhirā tejodhātu tejodhāturevesā.
The interior fire element and the exterior fire element are just the fire element.

‘Taṁ netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā tejodhātuyā nibbindati, tejodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the fire element, detaching the mind from the fire element.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, vāyodhātu?
And what is the air element?

Vāyodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
The air element may be interior or exterior.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu?
And what is the interior air element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ vāyo vāyogataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathidaṁ—
Anything that’s air, airy, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual. This includes

uddhaṅgamā vātā adhogamā vātā kucchisayā vātā koṭṭhāsayā vātā aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā assāso passāso iti, yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ vāyo vāyogataṁ upādinnaṁ—
winds that go up or down, winds in the belly or the bowels, winds that flow through the limbs, in-breaths and out-breaths, or anything else that’s air, airy, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual.

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu.
This is called the interior air element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā vāyodhātu yā ca bāhirā vāyodhātu vāyodhāturevesā.
The interior air element and the exterior air element are just the air element.

‘Taṁ netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā vāyodhātuyā nibbindati, vāyodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the air element, detaching the mind from the air element.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ākāsadhātu?
And what is the space element?

Ākāsadhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
The space element may be interior or exterior.

Katamā ca, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu?
And what is the interior space element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ ākāsaṁ ākāsagataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathidaṁ—
Anything that’s space, spacious, and appropriated that’s internal, pertaining to an individual. This includes

kaṇṇacchiddaṁ nāsacchiddaṁ mukhadvāraṁ yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ ajjhoharati, yattha ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ santiṭṭhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ adhobhāgaṁ nikkhamati, yaṁ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ ākāsaṁ ākāsagataṁ aghaṁ aghagataṁ vivaraṁ vivaragataṁ asamphuṭṭhaṁ maṁsalohitehi upādinnaṁ—
the ear canals, nostrils, and mouth; and the space for swallowing what is eaten and drunk, the space where it stays, and the space for excreting it from the nether regions.

ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhu, ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu.
This is called the interior space element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu yā ca bāhirā ākāsadhātu ākāsadhāturevesā.
The interior space element and the exterior space element are just the space element.

‘Taṁ netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti—evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
This should be truly seen with right understanding like this: ‘This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self.’

Evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā ākāsadhātuyā nibbindati, ākāsadhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
When you truly see with right understanding, you reject the space element, detaching the mind from the space element.

Athāparaṁ viññāṇaṁyeva avasissati parisuddhaṁ pariyodātaṁ.
There remains only consciousness, pure and bright.

Tena ca viññāṇena kiṁ vijānāti?
And what does that consciousness know?

‘Sukhan’tipi vijānāti, ‘dukkhan’tipi vijānāti, ‘adukkhamasukhan’tipi vijānāti.
It knows ‘pleasure’ and ‘pain’ and ‘neutral’.

Sukhavedaniyaṁ, bhikkhu, phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati sukhā vedanā.
Pleasant feeling arises dependent on a contact to be experienced as pleasant.

So sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.
When they feel a pleasant feeling, they know: ‘I feel a pleasant feeling.’

‘Tasseva sukhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ sukhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā sukhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.
They know: ‘With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as pleasant, the corresponding pleasant feeling ceases and stops.’

Dukkhavedaniyaṁ, bhikkhu, phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati dukkhā vedanā.
Painful feeling arises dependent on a contact to be experienced as painful.

So dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.
When they feel a painful feeling, they know: ‘I feel a painful feeling.’

‘Tasseva dukkhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ dukkhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā dukkhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.
They know: ‘With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as painful, the corresponding painful feeling ceases and stops.’

Adukkhamasukhavedaniyaṁ, bhikkhu, phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati adukkhamasukhā vedanā.
Neutral feeling arises dependent on a contact to be experienced as neutral.

So adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.
When they feel a neutral feeling, they know: ‘I feel a neutral feeling.’

‘Tasseva adukkhamasukhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ adukkhamasukhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā adukkhamasukhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.
They know: ‘With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as neutral, the corresponding neutral feeling ceases and stops.’

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, dvinnaṁ kaṭṭhānaṁ saṅghaṭṭā samodhānā usmā jāyati, tejo abhinibbattati, tesaṁyeva dvinnaṁ kaṭṭhānaṁ nānābhāvā vinikkhepā yā tajjā usmā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammati;
When you rub two sticks together, heat is generated and fire is produced. But when you part the sticks and lay them aside, any corresponding heat ceases and stops.

evameva kho, bhikkhu, sukhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati sukhā vedanā.
In the same way, pleasant feeling arises dependent on a contact to be experienced as pleasant. …

So sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.

‘Tasseva sukhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ sukhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā sukhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.

Dukkhavedaniyaṁ, bhikkhu, phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati dukkhā vedanā.

So dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.

‘Tasseva dukkhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ dukkhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā dukkhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.

Adukkhamasukhavedaniyaṁ, bhikkhu, phassaṁ paṭicca uppajjati adukkhamasukhā vedanā.

So adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘adukkhamasukhaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti.

‘Tasseva adukkhamasukhavedaniyassa phassassa nirodhā yaṁ tajjaṁ vedayitaṁ adukkhamasukhavedaniyaṁ phassaṁ paṭicca uppannā adukkhamasukhā vedanā sā nirujjhati, sā vūpasammatī’ti pajānāti.
They know: ‘With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as neutral, the corresponding neutral feeling ceases and stops.’

Athāparaṁ upekkhāyeva avasissati parisuddhā pariyodātā mudu ca kammaññā ca pabhassarā ca.
There remains only equanimity, pure, bright, pliable, workable, and radiant.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, dakkho suvaṇṇakāro vā suvaṇṇakārantevāsī vā ukkaṁ bandheyya, ukkaṁ bandhitvā ukkāmukhaṁ ālimpeyya, ukkāmukhaṁ ālimpetvā saṇḍāsena jātarūpaṁ gahetvā ukkāmukhe pakkhipeyya, tamenaṁ kālena kālaṁ abhidhameyya, kālena kālaṁ udakena paripphoseyya, kālena kālaṁ ajjhupekkheyya, taṁ hoti jātarūpaṁ sudhantaṁ niddhantaṁ nīhaṭaṁ ninnītakasāvaṁ mudu ca kammaññañca pabhassarañca, yassā yassā ca piḷandhanavikatiyā ākaṅkhati—yadi paṭṭikāya yadi kuṇḍalāya yadi gīveyyakāya yadi suvaṇṇamālāya tañcassa atthaṁ anubhoti;
It’s like when a deft goldsmith or a goldsmith’s apprentice prepares a forge, fires the crucible, picks up some gold with tongs and puts it in the crucible. From time to time they fan it, from time to time they sprinkle water on it, and from time to time they just watch over it. That gold becomes pliable, workable, and radiant, not brittle, and is ready to be worked. Then the goldsmith can successfully create any kind of ornament they want, whether a bracelet, earrings, a necklace, or a golden garland.

evameva kho, bhikkhu, athāparaṁ upekkhāyeva avasissati parisuddhā pariyodātā mudu ca kammaññā ca pabhassarā ca.
In the same way, there remains only equanimity, pure, bright, pliable, workable, and radiant.

So evaṁ pajānāti:
They understand:

‘imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ.
‘If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of infinite space, my mind would develop accordingly.

Evaṁ me ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya.
And this equanimity of mine, relying on that and grasping it, would remain for a very long time.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ.
If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of infinite consciousness, my mind would develop accordingly.

Evaṁ me ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya.
And this equanimity of mine, relying on that and grasping it, would remain for a very long time.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ.
If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of nothingness, my mind would develop accordingly.

Evaṁ me ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya.
And this equanimity of mine, relying on that and grasping it, would remain for a very long time.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ.
If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, my mind would develop accordingly.

Evaṁ me ayaṁ upekkhā tannissitā tadupādānā ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyyā’ti.
And this equanimity of mine, relying on that and grasping it, would remain for a very long time.’

So evaṁ pajānāti:
They understand:

‘imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ;
‘If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of infinite space, my mind would develop accordingly.

saṅkhatametaṁ.
But that is conditioned.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ;
If I were to apply this equanimity, so pure and bright, to the dimension of infinite consciousness …

saṅkhatametaṁ.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ;
nothingness …

saṅkhatametaṁ.

Imañce ahaṁ upekkhaṁ evaṁ parisuddhaṁ evaṁ pariyodātaṁ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasaṁhareyyaṁ, tadanudhammañca cittaṁ bhāveyyaṁ;
neither perception nor non-perception, my mind would develop accordingly.

saṅkhatametan’ti.
But that is conditioned.’

So neva taṁ abhisaṅkharoti, na abhisañcetayati bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā.
They neither make a choice nor form an intention to continue existence or to end existence.

So anabhisaṅkharonto anabhisañcetayanto bhavāya vā vibhavāya vā na kiñci loke upādiyati,
Because of this, they don’t grasp at anything in the world.

anupādiyaṁ na paritassati, aparitassaṁ paccattaṁyeva parinibbāyati.
Not grasping, they’re not anxious. Not being anxious, they personally become extinguished.

‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti.
They understand: ‘Rebirth is ended, the spiritual journey has been completed, what had to be done has been done, there is no return to any state of existence.’

So sukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, ‘sā aniccā’ti pajānāti, ‘anajjhositā’ti pajānāti, ‘anabhinanditā’ti pajānāti.
If they feel a pleasant feeling, they understand that it’s impermanent, that they’re not attached to it, and that they don’t take pleasure in it.

Dukkhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, ‘sā aniccā’ti pajānāti, ‘anajjhositā’ti pajānāti, ‘anabhinanditā’ti pajānāti.
If they feel a painful feeling, they understand that it’s impermanent, that they’re not attached to it, and that they don’t take pleasure in it.

Adukkhamasukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, ‘sā aniccā’ti pajānāti, ‘anajjhositā’ti pajānāti, ‘anabhinanditā’ti pajānāti.
If they feel a neutral feeling, they understand that it’s impermanent, that they’re not attached to it, and that they don’t take pleasure in it.

So sukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, visaṁyutto naṁ vedeti;
If they feel a pleasant feeling, they feel it detached.

dukkhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, visaṁyutto naṁ vedeti;
If they feel a painful feeling, they feel it detached.

adukkhamasukhañce vedanaṁ vedeti, visaṁyutto naṁ vedeti.
If they feel a neutral feeling, they feel it detached.

So kāyapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘kāyapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti, jīvitapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘jīvitapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti,
Feeling the end of the body approaching, they understand: ‘I feel the end of the body approaching.’ Feeling the end of life approaching, they understand: ‘I feel the end of life approaching.’

‘kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā idheva sabbavedayitāni anabhinanditāni sītībhavissantī’ti pajānāti.
They understand: ‘When my body breaks up and my life has come to an end, everything that’s felt, since I no longer take pleasure in it, will become cool right here.’

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, telañca paṭicca vaṭṭiñca paṭicca telappadīpo jhāyati;
Suppose an oil lamp depended on oil and a wick to burn.

tasseva telassa ca vaṭṭiyā ca pariyādānā aññassa ca anupahārā anāhāro nibbāyati;
As the oil and the wick are used up, it would be extinguished due to lack of fuel.

evameva kho, bhikkhu, kāyapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘kāyapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti, jīvitapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayamāno ‘jīvitapariyantikaṁ vedanaṁ vedayāmī’ti pajānāti,
In the same way, feeling the end of the body approaching, they understand: ‘I feel the end of the body approaching.’ Feeling the end of life approaching, they understand: ‘I feel the end of life approaching.’

‘kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā idheva sabbavedayitāni anabhinanditāni sītībhavissantī’ti pajānāti.
They understand: ‘When my body breaks up and my life has come to an end, everything that’s felt, since I no longer take pleasure in it, will become cool right here.’

Tasmā evaṁ samannāgato bhikkhu iminā paramena paññādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.
Therefore a mendicant thus endowed is endowed with the ultimate foundation of wisdom.

Esā hi, bhikkhu, paramā ariyā paññā yadidaṁ—
For this is the ultimate noble wisdom, namely,

sabbadukkhakkhaye ñāṇaṁ.
the knowledge of the ending of suffering.

Tassa sā vimutti sacce ṭhitā akuppā hoti.
Their freedom, being founded on truth, is unshakable.

Tañhi, bhikkhu, musā yaṁ mosadhammaṁ, taṁ saccaṁ yaṁ amosadhammaṁ nibbānaṁ.
For that which is false has a deceptive nature, while that which is true has an undeceptive nature—extinguishment.

Tasmā evaṁ samannāgato bhikkhu iminā paramena saccādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.
Therefore a mendicant thus endowed is endowed with the ultimate resolve of truth.

Etañhi, bhikkhu, paramaṁ ariyasaccaṁ yadidaṁ—
For this is the ultimate noble truth, namely,

amosadhammaṁ nibbānaṁ.
that which has an undeceptive nature—extinguishment.

Tasseva kho pana pubbe aviddasuno upadhī honti samattā samādinnā.
In their ignorance, they used to acquire attachments.

Tyāssa pahīnā honti ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā.
Those have been cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so they are unable to arise in the future.

Tasmā evaṁ samannāgato bhikkhu iminā paramena cāgādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.
Therefore a mendicant thus endowed is endowed with the ultimate foundation of generosity.

Eso hi, bhikkhu, paramo ariyo cāgo yadidaṁ—
For this is the ultimate noble generosity, namely,

sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo.
letting go of all attachments.

Tasseva kho pana pubbe aviddasuno abhijjhā hoti chando sārāgo.
In their ignorance, they used to be covetous, full of desire and lust.

Svāssa pahīno hoti ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo.
That has been cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so it’s unable to arise in the future.

Tasseva kho pana pubbe aviddasuno āghāto hoti byāpādo sampadoso.
In their ignorance, they used to be contemptuous, full of ill will and malevolence.

Svāssa pahīno hoti ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo.
That has been cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so it’s unable to arise in the future.

Tasseva kho pana pubbe aviddasuno avijjā hoti sammoho.
In their ignorance, they used to be ignorant, full of delusion.

Svāssa pahīno hoti ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo.
That has been cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so it’s unable to arise in the future.

Tasmā evaṁ samannāgato bhikkhu iminā paramena upasamādhiṭṭhānena samannāgato hoti.
Therefore a mendicant thus endowed is endowed with the ultimate foundation of peace.

Eso hi, bhikkhu, paramo ariyo upasamo yadidaṁ—
For this is the ultimate noble peace, namely,

rāgadosamohānaṁ upasamo.
the pacification of greed, hate, and delusion.

‘Paññaṁ nappamajjeyya, saccamanurakkheyya, cāgamanubrūheyya, santimeva so sikkheyyā’ti—
‘Do not neglect wisdom; preserve truth; foster generosity; and train only for peace.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

‘Yattha ṭhitaṁ maññassavā nappavattanti, maññassave kho pana nappavattamāne muni santoti vuccatī’ti—
‘Wherever they stand, the streams of conceiving do not flow. And when the streams of conceiving do not flow, they are called a sage at peace.’

iti kho panetaṁ vuttaṁ. Kiñcetaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ?
That’s what I said, but why did I say it?

‘Asmī’ti, bhikkhu, maññitametaṁ, ‘ayamahamasmī’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘na bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘rūpī bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘arūpī bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘saññī bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘asaññī bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ, ‘nevasaññīnāsaññī bhavissan’ti maññitametaṁ.
These are all forms of conceiving: ‘I am’, ‘I am this’, ‘I will be’, ‘I will not be’, ‘I will have form’, ‘I will be formless’, ‘I will be percipient’, ‘I will be non-percipient’, ‘I will be neither percipient nor non-percipient.’

Maññitaṁ, bhikkhu, rogo maññitaṁ gaṇḍo maññitaṁ sallaṁ.
Conceiving is a disease, a boil, a dart.

Sabbamaññitānaṁ tveva, bhikkhu, samatikkamā muni santoti vuccati.
Having gone beyond all conceiving, one is called a sage at peace.

Muni kho pana, bhikkhu, santo na jāyati, na jīyati, na mīyati, na kuppati, na piheti.
The sage at peace is not reborn, does not grow old, and does not die. They are not shaken, and do not yearn.

Tañhissa, bhikkhu, natthi yena jāyetha, ajāyamāno kiṁ jīyissati, ajīyamāno kiṁ mīyissati, amīyamāno kiṁ kuppissati, akuppamāno kissa pihessati?
For they have nothing which would cause them to be reborn. Not being reborn, how could they grow old? Not growing old, how could they die? Not dying, how could they be shaken? Not shaking, for what could they yearn?

‘Yattha ṭhitaṁ maññassavā nappavattanti, maññassave kho pana nappavattamāne muni santoti vuccatī’ti—
‘Wherever they stand, the streams of conceiving do not flow. And when the streams of conceiving do not flow, they are called a sage at peace.’

iti yaṁ taṁ vuttaṁ, idametaṁ paṭicca vuttaṁ.
That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

Imaṁ kho me tvaṁ, bhikkhu, saṅkhittena chadhātuvibhaṅgaṁ dhārehī”ti.
Mendicant, you should remember this brief analysis of the six elements.”

Atha kho āyasmā pukkusāti:
Then Venerable Pukkusāti thought,

“satthā kira me anuppatto, sugato kira me anuppatto, sammāsambuddho kira me anuppatto”ti uṭṭhāyāsanā ekaṁsaṁ cīvaraṁ katvā bhagavato pādesu sirasā nipatitvā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:
“It seems the Teacher has come to me! The Holy One has come to me! The fully awakened Buddha has come to me!” He got up from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, bowed with his head at the Buddha’s feet, and said,

“accayo maṁ, bhante, accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathāakusalaṁ, yohaṁ bhagavantaṁ āvusovādena samudācaritabbaṁ amaññissaṁ.
“I have made a mistake, sir. It was foolish, stupid, and unskillful of me to presume to address the Buddha as ‘reverend’.

Tassa me, bhante, bhagavā accayaṁ accayato paṭiggaṇhātu āyatiṁ saṁvarāyā”ti.
Please, sir, accept my mistake for what it is, so I will restrain myself in future.”

“Taggha tvaṁ, bhikkhu, accayo accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathāakusalaṁ, yaṁ maṁ tvaṁ āvusovādena samudācaritabbaṁ amaññittha.
“Indeed, mendicant, you made a mistake. It was foolish, stupid, and unskillful of you to act in that way.

Yato ca kho tvaṁ, bhikkhu, accayaṁ accayato disvā yathādhammaṁ paṭikarosi, taṁ te mayaṁ paṭiggaṇhāma.
But since you have recognized your mistake for what it is, and have dealt with it properly, I accept it.

Vuddhihesā, bhikkhu, ariyassa vinaye yo accayaṁ accayato disvā yathādhammaṁ paṭikaroti, āyatiṁ saṁvaraṁ āpajjatī”ti.
For it is growth in the training of the Noble One to recognize a mistake for what it is, deal with it properly, and commit to restraint in the future.”

“Labheyyāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavato santike upasampadan”ti.
“Sir, may I receive the going forth, the ordination in the Buddha’s presence?”

“Paripuṇṇaṁ pana te, bhikkhu, pattacīvaran”ti?
“But mendicant, are your bowl and robes complete?”

“Na kho me, bhante, paripuṇṇaṁ pattacīvaran”ti.
“No, sir, they are not.”

“Na kho, bhikkhu, tathāgatā aparipuṇṇapattacīvaraṁ upasampādentī”ti.
“The Realized Ones do not ordain those whose bowl and robes are incomplete.”

Atha kho āyasmā pukkusāti bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pattacīvarapariyesanaṁ pakkāmi.
And then Venerable Pukkusāti approved and agreed with what the Buddha said. He got up from his seat, bowed, and respectfully circled the Buddha, keeping him on his right, before leaving.

Atha kho āyasmantaṁ pukkusātiṁ pattacīvarapariyesanaṁ carantaṁ vibbhantā gāvī jīvitā voropesi.
But while he was wandering in search of a bowl and robes, a stray cow took his life.

Atha kho sambahulā bhikkhū yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho te bhikkhū bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ:
Then several mendicants went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him,

“yo so, bhante, pukkusāti nāma kulaputto bhagavatā saṅkhittena ovādena ovadito so kālaṅkato.
“Sir, the gentleman named Pukkusāti, who was advised in brief by the Buddha, has passed away.

Tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo”ti?
Where has he been reborn in his next life?”

“Paṇḍito, bhikkhave, pukkusāti kulaputto paccapādi dhammassānudhammaṁ, na ca maṁ dhammādhikaraṇaṁ vihesesi.
“Mendicants, Pukkusāti was astute. He practiced in line with the teachings, and did not trouble me about the teachings.

Pukkusāti, bhikkhave, kulaputto pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā”ti.
With the ending of the five lower fetters, he’s been reborn spontaneously and will become extinguished there, not liable to return from that world.”

Idamavoca bhagavā.
That is what the Buddha said.

Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.
Satisfied, the mendicants approved what the Buddha said.

Dhātuvibhaṅgasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dasamaṁ.